Abbott tweeted Saturday that he signed off on the ban, which takes effect Sept. 1.
Such cameras take images of vehicles entering intersections when red stoplights are lit. Drivers are usually fined $75.
Critics say red-light cameras are unconstitutional and contribute to traffic accidents. Supporters say red-light cameras help make streets safer and generate funds for cities and other government entities.
An amendment lets cities keep operating the cameras until their contracts with vendors expire, although some communities have begun negotiations to terminate the deals earlier. The law also prevents counties and Texas officials from refusing to register a vehicle amid unpaid red-light camera tickets.